Paolo Ruffino is completing a Ph.D. at Goldsmiths, University of London. He is a Research Fellow at the Gamification Lab at Leuphana University and works as Lecturer at the Game Cultures programme at London South Bank University. His Ph.D. research involves a study of new forms of production and consumption in the video game industry and phenomena such as ‘modding’, independent gaming, open engines and game art. He has been analysing discourses surrounding the ‘Playstation hacking’ case, the Independent Games Festival and independent gaming, gamification and game development kits. He is also a member of the art collective IOCOSE. Paolo lives and works in London, UK.